The Amharic examples in the sections below use one system that is common, though not universal, among linguists specialising in Ethiopian Semitic languages.[1. BackgroundIt has been the working language of courts, language of trade and everyday communications, the military, and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church since the late 1. Ethiopia today.[1. As of the 2. 00. 7 census, Amharic is spoken by 2. Ethiopia and 4 million secondary speakers in Ethiopia. Additionally, 3 million emigrants outside of Ethiopia speak the language. Most of the Ethiopian Jewish communities in Ethiopia and Israel speak Amharic.[1. In Washington DC, Amharic became one of the six non- English languages in the Language Access Act of 2.
Amharic.[1. 5] Furthermore, Amharic is considered a holy language by the Rastafari (ራስ ተፈሪ) religion and is widely used among its followers worldwide. It is the most widely spoken language in the Horn of Africa.[1. PhonologyThe Amharic ejective consonants correspond to the Proto- Semitic "emphatic consonants", usually transcribed with a dot below the letter. The consonant and vowel tables give these symbols in parentheses where they differ from the standard IPA symbols. Vowels[1. 7]Front. Central. Back. Highiɨ (ə)u. Mideə (ä)o. Lowa.
Amharic (Ethiopian) English Dictionary Online Translation, Language, Grammar. Donate and Download These Books in PDF Format Now!!! Concise Amharic Dictionary (Includes English to Amharic) $20.00 Although Amharic is the national.
Writing system. The Ethiopic (or Ge'ez) writing system is visible on the side of this Ethiopian Airlines. Fokker 5. 0: it reads "Ethiopia's": የኢትዮጵያye- ʾityop̣p̣ya. The Amharic script is an abugida, and the graphemes of the Amharic writing system are called fidel.[1. Each character represents a consonant+vowel sequence, but the basic shape of each character is determined by the consonant, which is modified for the vowel. Some consonant phonemes are written by more than one series of characters: /ʔ/, /s/, /sʼ/, and /h/ (the last one has four distinct letter forms). This is because these fidel originally represented distinct sounds, but phonological changes merged them.[1.
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Play or download Christian songs used for praise and worship of Jehovah God. Vocal, orchestral, and instrumental audio recordings as well as sheet music are available. Ethiopian Semitic (also known as Ethiosemitic or Ethiopic, or in the past by a few linguists as Abyssinian due to geography) is a language group which forms the.
The citation form for each series is the consonant+ä form, i. The Amharic script is included in Unicode, and glyphs are included in fonts available with major operating systems. A modern usage of Amharic: the label of a Coca- Cola bottle. The script reads ኮካ- ኮላ (koka- kola).
AlphasyllabaryChart of Amharic fidels[1. GeminationAs in most other Ethiopian Semitic languages, gemination is contrastive in Amharic.
That is, consonant length can distinguish words from one another; for example, alä 'he said', allä 'there is'; yǝmätall 'he hits', yǝmmättall 'he is hit'. Gemination is not indicated in Amharic orthography, but Amharic readers typically do not find this to be a problem.
This property of the writing system is analogous to the vowels of Arabic and Hebrew or the tones of many Bantu languages, which are not normally indicated in writing. Ethiopian novelist Haddis Alemayehu, who was an advocate of Amharic orthography reform, indicated gemination in his novel Fǝqǝr Ǝskä Mäqabǝr by placing a dot above the characters whose consonants were geminated, but this practice is rare. PunctuationPunctuation includes the following: ፠ section mark፡word separator። full stop (period)፣ comma፤ semicolon፥ colon፦ Preface colon (introduces speech from a descriptive prefix)፧ question mark፨ paragraph separator. GrammarSimple Amharic sentences.
One may construct simple Amharic sentences by using a subject and a predicate. Here are a few simple sentences: [2. Ityop̣p̣ya ʾAfrika wǝsṭ nat(lit., Ethiopia Africa inside is)'Ethiopia is in Africa.'ልጁ ተኝቷልLǝǧu täññǝtʷall.(lit., the boy asleep is). Lǝǧ is 'boy'. Lǝǧu is 'the boy''The boy is asleep.'አየሩ ደስ ይላልAyyäru däss yǝlall.(lit., the weather pleasant is)'The weather is pleasant.'እሱ ወደ ከተማ መጣƎssu wädä kätäma mäṭṭa.(lit., he to city came)'He came to the city.'PronounsPersonal pronounsIn most languages, there is a small number of basic distinctions of person, number, and often gender that play a role within the grammar of the language. The distinctions within the basic set of independent personal pronouns can be seen in English I, Amharic እኔǝne; English she, Amharic እሷǝsswa. In Amharic, as in other Semitic languages, the same distinctions appear in three other places in their grammar. Subject–verb agreement.
All Amharic verbs agree with their subjects; that is, the person, number, and (in the second- and third- person singular) gender of the subject of the verb are marked by suffixes or prefixes on the verb. Because the affixes that signal subject agreement vary greatly with the particular verb tense/aspect/mood, they are normally not considered to be pronouns and are discussed elsewhere in this article under verb conjugation. Object pronoun suffixes. Amharic verbs often have additional morphology that indicates the person, number, and (second- and third- person singular) gender of the object of the verb.አልማዝንአየኋትalmazǝnayyähʷ- at.
Almaz- ACCI- saw- her'I saw Almaz'While morphemes such as - at in this example are sometimes described as signaling object agreement, analogous to subject agreement, they are more often thought of as object pronoun suffixes because, unlike the markers of subject agreement, they do not vary significantly with the tense/aspect/mood of the verb. For arguments of the verb other than the subject or the object, there are two separate sets of related suffixes, one with a benefactive meaning (to, for), the other with an adversative or locative meaning (against, to the detriment of, on, at).ለአልማዝበሩንከፈትኩላትläʾalmazbärrunkäffätku- llatfor- Almazdoor- DEF- ACCI- opened- for- her'I opened the door for Almaz'በአልማዝበሩንዘጋሁባትbäʾalmazbärrunzäggahu- bbaton- Almazdoor- DEF- ACCI- closed- on- her'I closed the door on Almaz (to her detriment)'Morphemes such as - llat and - bbat in these examples will be referred to in this article as prepositional object pronoun suffixes because they correspond to prepositional phrases such as for her and on her, to distinguish them from the direct object pronoun suffixes such as - at 'her'. Possessive suffixes. Amharic has a further set of morphemes that are suffixed to nouns, signalling possession: ቤትbet 'house', ቤቴbete, my house, ቤቷ; betwa, her house. In each of these four aspects of the grammar, independent pronouns, subject–verb agreement, object pronoun suffixes, and possessive suffixes, Amharic distinguishes eight combinations of person, number, and gender.
For first person, there is a two- way distinction between singular (I) and plural (we), whereas for second and third persons, there is a distinction between singular and plural and within the singular a further distinction between masculine and feminine (you m. Amharic is a pro- drop language: neutral sentences in which no element is emphasized normally omit independent pronouns: ኢትዮጵያዊ ነውʾityop̣p̣yawi näw 'he's Ethiopian', ጋበዝኳትgabbäzkwat 'I invited her'. The Amharic words that translate he, I, and her do not appear in these sentences as independent words.
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Abbey. Abkhaz. Abua. Abui. Achi. Acholi. Adhola. Adyghe. Afrikaans. Ahanta. Aja. AjiëAkateko. Akha. Albanian. Albanian Sign Language. Algonquin. Altai. Alur. Ambae (East)American Sign Language.
Amharic. Amis. Amuzgo (Guerrero)Angolan Sign Language. Anyin (Indenie)Arabic. Arabic (Algeria)Arabic (Egypt)Arabic (Jordan)Arabic (Lebanon)Arabic (Morocco)Arabic (Sudanese Creole)Arabic (Tunisia)Argentinean Sign Language. Arhuaco. Armenian. Armenian (West)Armenian Sign Language. Arosi. Assamese. Assyrian. Atayal. Ateso. AttiéAukan.
Australian Sign Language. Austrian Sign Language. Avar. Awajun. Awing. Ayiwo. Aymara. Azerbaijani. Azerbaijani (Arabic)Azerbaijani (Cyrillic)Badaga. Bafia. Bakoko. Balinese. Bambara. Banjar. Baoule.
Bari. Bariba. Bashkir. Basque. Bassa (Cameroon)Bassa (Liberia)Batak (Dairi)Batak (Karo)Batak (Simalungun)Batak (Toba)Bauro. Belgian French Sign Language. Belize Kriol. Belorussian. Bembe. Bengali. Betsimisaraka (Northern)Betsimisaraka (Southern)Biak.
Bicol. Bidayuh (Bukar)Bislama. Bissau Guinean Creole. Blackfoot. Bolivian Sign Language. Bomu. Bosnian. Boulou. Brazilian Sign Language. Bribri. British Sign Language. Budza. Bukusu. Bulgarian.
Bulgarian Sign Language. Bunak. Bunun (South)Buryat.
Bushi. Bushoong. BétéCakchiquel (Western)Cambodian. Cambodian Sign Language. Carib. Catalan. Cebuano. Central Alaskan Yupik.
Chamorro. Changana (Mozambique)Changana (Zimbabwe)Chavacano. Chechen. Chichewa. Chiga. Chilean Sign Language.
Chin (Falam)Chin (Hakha)Chin (Kuki)Chin (Mara)Chin (Matu)Chin (Tiddim)Chin (Zotung)Chinantec (Ojitlan)Chinese (Min Nan)Chinese (Shanghainese)Chinese (Yunnanese)Chinese Cantonese (Simplified)Chinese Cantonese (Traditional)Chinese Mandarin (Simplified)Chinese Mandarin (Traditional)Chinese Sign Language. Chiquitano. Chitonga. Chitonga (Malawi)Chitonga (Zimbabwe)Chitumbuka. Chiyao. Chokwe. Chol. Chontal (Oaxaca)Chontal (Tabasco)Chopi.
Chorote (Iyojwa'ja)Chuabo. Chuj. Chuukese. Chuvash.
Cibemba. Cinamwanga. Cinyanja. Colombian Sign Language. Comorian (Ngazidja)Congolese Sign Language. Cora (El Nayar)Corsican. Costa Rican Sign Language.
Cree Plains. Cree Plains (Roman)Cree West Swampy. Cree West Swampy (Roman)Cree Woods. Cree Woods (Roman)Crimean Tatar (Cyrillic)Croatian. Croatian Sign Language. Cuban Sign Language.
Curripaco. Czech. Czech Sign Language. Dagaare. Dagbani. Dakota. Damara. Dangme. Danish. Danish Sign Language. Dargwa. Dari. Dayak Ahe. Dayak Ngaju. Dayak Tomun.
Dengese. Dida (Lakota)Digor. Dinka. Diola. Douala. Drehu. Dusun. Dutch. Dutch (Belgium)Dutch Sign Language. Ecuadorian Sign Language. Edo. Efate (North)Efate (South)Efik.
Emberá (Chamí)Emberá (Catío)Enga. English. Erzya. Esan. Estonian. Estonian Sign Language. Ethiopian Sign Language. Eton. Ewe. Ewondo.
Fang. Fante. Faroese. Fataluku. Fe'fe'Fiji Sign Language. Fijian. Filipino Sign Language.
Finnish. Finnish Sign Language. Flemish Sign Language. Fon. Frafra. French.
French (Benin)French (Canada)French Sign Language. Frisian. Fulfulde (Cameroon)Futuna (East)Ga. Gagauz. Gagauz (Roman)Galician. Garifuna. Garo (Abeng)Gbaya. Georgian. German. German Sign Language.
Ghanaian Sign Language. Ghomálá’Giryama. Gitonga.
Gogo. Gokana. Gourmanchéma. Gouro. Greek. Greek Sign Language. Greenlandic. Greenlandic (East)Guadeloupean Creole. Guahibo. Guambiano.
Guarani. Guarani (Bolivia)Guarayu. Guatemalan Sign Language. Guerze. Guianese Creole. Gujarati. Gun. Gun (Benin)Guna. GuéréHaitian Creole. Hakka (Indonesia)Hakka (Taiwan)Halia. Hamshen (Armenian)Hamshen (Cyrillic)Hano.
Hausa. Havu. Hawu. Haya. Hebrew. Hehe. Herero. Hiligaynon. Hindi. Hiri Motu. Hitnu. Hmong (Green)Hmong (White)Honduras Sign Language. Hong Kong Sign Language.
Hopi. Huastec (San Luis Potosi)Huastec (Veracruz)Huave. Huichol. Hula. Hungarian.
Hungarian Sign Language. Hunsrik. Iaai. Ibaloi. Iban. Ibanag. Ibinda. Icelandic. Idoma.
Ifugao. Igbo. Igede. Ignaciano. Ijaw. Iloko. Inakeanon. Indian Sign Language. Indonesian. Indonesian Sign Language.
Inuktitut (Roman)Inuktitut (Syllabics)Irish. Irish Sign Language.
Isoko. Israeli Sign Language. Italian. Italian Sign Language. Itawit. Itsekiri. Iu Mien. Ivatan. Ivorian Sign Language. Ixil. Jamaican Creole.
Jamaican Sign Language. Japanese. Japanese Sign Language. Javanese. Javanese (Eastern)Jejueo.
Jiwaka. Jula. Kabardin- Cherkess. Kabiye. Kabuverdianu. Kabyle. Kachin. Kadazan. Kaingang. Kalanga (Botswana)Kalanga (Zimbabwe)Kalenjin. Kalmyk. Kamayo. Kambera. Kankanaey. Kannada.
Kanyok. Kapingamarangi. Karabakh. Karachay- Balkar. Karakalpak. Karen (Pwo Northern)Karen (Pwo Western)Karen (S'gaw)Kashubian. Kazakh. Kazakh (Arabic)Kei.
Kekchi. Kele. Kemak. Kenyan Sign Language. Khakass. Khana. Khasi. Khmer (Northern)Kikamba. Kikaonde. Kikongo. Kikongo ya Leta. Kikuyu.
Kiluba. Kimanyanga. Kimbundu. Kinande. Kinaray- a. Kinyakyusa.
Kinyarwanda. Kipende. Kirghiz. Kiribati. Kirundi. Kisi. Kisii. Kisonge. Kituba. Komi. Komi- Permyak. Kongo. Konkani (Devanagari)Konkani (Kannada)Konkani (Roman)Korean. Picture Cutout Guide 2 7 0 Software Patch more. Korean (China)Korean Sign Language.
Kosraean. Koti. Kpelle. Krio. Kryashen. Kuanua. Kuhane (Subiya)Kuman.
Kumyk. Kunama. Kurdish Kurmanji. Kurdish Kurmanji (Caucasus)Kurdish Kurmanji (Cyrillic)Kurdish Sorani. Kuria. Kuy. Kwaio. Kwangali. Kwanyama.
Kwara'ae. Kyangonde. Ladin (Gardenese)Lahu. Lak. Lakota. Lala- Bisa. Lamba. Lambya. Lango.
Laotian. Lari. Latgalian. Latvian. Latvian Sign Language. Lega. Lele. Lendu. Lenje. Lezgian. Lhukonzo. Liberian English.
Limbum. Lingala. Lingombe. Lisu. Lithuanian. Lithuanian Sign Language. Logo. Lolo. Loma. Lomongo. Lomwe. Lovari. Low German. Luchazi. Luganda. Lugbara.
Lunda. Luo. Luvale. Luxembourgish. Maasai.
Macedonian. Macua. Macushi. Madagascar Sign Language. Madi. Madura. Mahorian (Roman)Maithili. Makaa. Makasae. Makasae (Ossu)Makhuwa- Meetto. Makonde. Malagasy.
Malango. Malawi Sign Language. Malay. Malayalam.
Malaysian Sign Language. Maltese. Mam. Mamasa. Mambae (Aileu)Mambae (Ainaro and Same)Mambae (Ermera)Mambwe- Lungu. Manado Malay. Mandjak. Mangareva. Mangbetu. Maninkakan (Eastern)Manipuri. Mano. Manyawa. Maori.
Mapudungun. Maragoli. Maranaw. Marathi. Mari. Mari (Hill)Marquesian (Hiva Oa)Marquesian (Nuku Hiva)Marshallese.
Martiniquan Creole. Mashi. Matengo. Mauritian Creole. Maya. Maya (Mopán)Mayangna. Mayo. Mazahua. Mazatec (Huautla)Mbala. Mbo. Mbukushu. Mbunda. Medan Hokkien. Medumba.
Melanesian Sign Language. Melpa. Mende. Mentawai. Meru. Meta'Mexican Sign Language.
Min Nan (Taiwan)Mingrelian. Miskito. Mixe. Mixtec (Costa)Mixtec (Guerrero)Mixtec (Huajuapan)Mixtec (Tilantongo)Mixtec (Tlaxiaco)Mizo. Mnong (Central)Moba.
Mohawk. Mokilese. Moksha. Mongolian. Mongolian Sign Language. Moore. Moru. Motu. Moundang. Mozambican Sign Language.
Myanmar. Myanmar Sign Language. Nahuatl (Central)Nahuatl (Guerrero)Nahuatl (Huasteca)Nahuatl (Northern Puebla)Nahuatl (Veracruz)Nama. Nambya. Namibian Sign Language.
Natügu. Nauete. Nauruan. Navajo. Ndali. Ndau. Ndebele. Ndebele (Zimbabwe)Ndonga. Nenets. Nenets (Forest)Nengone.
Nepali. Nepali Sign Language. New Zealand Sign Language. Newari. Ngabere. Ngambaye.
Ngangela. Ngbaka. Ngbandi (Northern)Ngiemboon. Ngigua (San Marcos Tlacoyalco)Ngombale. Nias. Nicaraguan Sign Language. Nicobarese. Nigerian Pidgin.
Niuean. NivacléNkoya. Northern Ojibwe (Roman)Northern Ojibwe (Syllabics)Norwegian. Norwegian Sign Language. Nsenga. Nuer. Nukumanu. Nukuoro. Numèè (Kwenyii)Nyaneka. Nyungwe. Nzema. Obolo.
Odawa. Odia. Okpe. Olunyole. Orokaiva. Oromo. Ossetian. Ossetian (Kudar)Otetela. Otomi (Eastern Highland)Otomi (Mezquital Valley)Otomi (State of Mexico)Paama.
PaicîPaiwan. Palauan. Palikúr. Pamona. Panamanian Sign Language. Pangasinan. Papiamento (Aruba)Papiamento (Curaçao)Paraguayan Sign Language. Pashto. Pehuenche.
Pemon. Pennsylvania German. Persian. Peruvian Sign Language. Phu Thai. Piaroa. Pidgin (Cameroon)Pidgin (West Africa)PilagáPitjantjatjara. Polish. Polish Sign Language.
Pomeranian. Ponapean. Popoluca (Highland)Popti'Poqomchi'Portuguese.