Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidalandrogens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone. They are anabolic and increase protein within cells, especially in skeletal muscles, and also have varying degrees of androgenic and virilizing effects, including induction of the development and maintenance of masculinesecondary sexual characteristics such as the growth of the vocal cords and body hair.
The word anabolic, referring to anabolism, comes from the Greek ἀναβολή anabole, "that which is thrown up, mound." They are one of three types of sex hormone agonists, the others being estrogens like estradiol and progestogens like progesterone. AAS were synthesized in the 1. AIDS. The American College of Sports Medicine acknowledges that AAS, in the presence of adequate diet, can contribute to increases in body weight, often as lean mass increases and that the gains in muscular strength achieved through high- intensity exercise and proper diet can be additionally increased by the use of AAS in some individuals.Health risks can be produced by long- term use or excessive doses of AAS. These effects include harmful changes in cholesterol levels (increased low- density lipoprotein and decreased high- density lipoprotein), acne, high blood pressure, liver damage (mainly with most oral AAS), and dangerous changes in the structure of the left ventricle of the heart. Conditions pertaining to hormonal imbalances such as gynecomastia and testicular size reduction may also be caused by AAS. Ergogenic uses for AAS in sports, racing, and bodybuilding as performance- enhancing drugs are controversial because of their adverse effects and the potential to gain unfair advantage in physical competitions. Their use is referred to as doping and banned by most major sporting bodies. For many years, AAS have been by far the most detected doping substances in IOC- accredited laboratories. In countries where AAS are controlled substances, there is often a black market in which smuggled, clandestinely manufactured or even counterfeit drugs are sold to users. Medical. Various AAS and related compounds.
Since the discovery and synthesis of testosterone in the 1. AAS have been used by physicians for many purposes, with varying degrees of success, including the following: Bone marrow stimulation: For decades, AAS were the mainstay of therapy for hypoplasticanemias due to leukemia or kidney failure, especially aplastic anemia. AAS have largely been replaced in this setting by synthetic protein hormones (such as epoetin alfa) that selectively stimulate growth of blood cell precursors. Growth stimulation: AAS can be used by pediatric endocrinologists to treat children with growth failure. However, the availability of synthetic growth hormone, which has fewer side effects, makes this a secondary treatment. Stimulation of appetite and preservation and increase of muscle mass: AAS have been given to people with chronic wasting conditions such as cancer and AIDS.[1. Hormone replacement for men with low levels of testosterone; also effective in improving libido for elderly males.[1.
Stimulation of lean body mass and prevention of bone loss in elderly men, as some studies indicate.[1. However, a 2. 00. Induction of male puberty: Androgens are given to many boys distressed about extreme delay of puberty. Testosterone is now nearly the only androgen used for this purpose and has been shown to increase height, weight, and fat- free mass in boys with delayed puberty.[2. Gender dysphoria, by producing secondary male characteristics, such as a deeper voice, increased bone and muscle mass, facial hair, and clitoral enlargement in transgender men,[2. In low doses as a component of hormone replacement therapy for postmenopausal and transgender women, for instance to increase energy, well- being, libido, and quality of life, as well as to reduce hot flashes.[2.
Testosterone is usually used for this purpose, although methyltestosterone is also used.[3. Treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.[3. Although they have previously been approved for this indication, AAS saw very little use for this purpose due to their virilizing side effects.[3. Microsoft Project Run Multiple Instances Of Same Program there. Treatment of breast cancer in women, although they are now rarely used for this purpose due to virilizing side effects.[3.
Male contraception, in the form of testosterone enanthate; potential for use in the near- future as a safe, reliable, and reversible male contraceptive.[3. Enhancing performance. Numerous vials of injectable AASMost steroid users are not athletes.[3.
Between 1 million and 3 million people (1% of the population) are thought to have misused AAS in the United States.[4. Studies in the United States have shown that AAS users tend to be mostly middle- class heterosexual men with a median age of about 2. Among 1. 2- to 1. Blue Cross Blue Shield found."(Eisenhauer) Another study found that non- medical use of AAS among college students was at or less than 1%.[4. According to a recent survey, 7.
AAS for non- medical purposes, less than 1%.[4. Another 2. 00. 7 study found that 7. AAS users had post- secondary degrees and more had completed college and fewer had failed to complete high school than is expected from the general populace.[4. The same study found that individuals using AAS for non- medical purposes had a higher employment rate and a higher household income than the general population.[4. AAS users tend to research the drugs they are taking more than other controlled- substance users; however, the major sources consulted by steroid users include friends, non- medical handbooks, internet- based forums, blogs, and fitness magazines, which can provide questionable or inaccurate information.[4. AAS users tend to be unhappy with the portrayal of AAS as deadly in the media and in politics.[4.
According to one study, AAS users also distrust their physicians and in the sample 5. AAS use to their physicians.[4. Another 2. 00. 7 study had similar findings, showing that, while 6. AAS for non- medical purposes were willing to seek medical supervision for their steroid use, 5.
AAS use was lacking, and 9. AAS use.[4. 4] A recent study has also shown that long term AAS users were more likely to have symptoms of muscle dysmorphia and also showed stronger endorsement of more conventional male roles.[4. A recent study in the Journal of Health Psychology showed that many users believed that steroids used in moderation were safe.[4.
AAS have been used by men and women in many different kinds of professional sports to attain a competitive edge or to assist in recovery from injury. These sports include bodybuilding, weightlifting, shot put and other track and field, cycling, baseball, wrestling, mixed martial arts, boxing, football, and cricket. Such use is prohibited by the rules of the governing bodies of most sports. AAS use occurs among adolescents, especially by those participating in competitive sports. It has been suggested that the prevalence of use among high- school students in the U. S. may be as high as 2.
Male students used AAS more frequently than female students and, on average, those that participated in sports used steroids more often than those that did not. Available forms. A vial of injectable testosterone cypionate. There are four common forms in which AAS are administered: oral pills; injectable steroids; creams/gels for topical application; and skin patches. Oral administration is the most convenient.
Testosterone administered by mouth is rapidly absorbed, but it is largely converted to inactive metabolites, and only about one- sixth is available in active form.
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